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Archaeometrists have used a variety of methods to analyze artifacts, either to determine more about their composition, or to determine their provenance.These techniques include: Lead, strontium and oxygen isotope analysis can also test human remains to estimate the diets and even the birthplaces of a study's subjects.
Therefore, at a research level significance is placed on the past but also on the importance of the present.
The first settlement of Australia is a popular research topic both in archaeology and in the public arena.
Provenance analysis has the potential to determine the original source of the materials used, for example, to make a particular artifact.
This can show how far the artifact has traveled and can indicate the existence of systems of exchange.
In the late 1970s cultural heritage management gained prominence, with the increasing demands by Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups for representation in archaeological research.
At a research level the focus shifted to cultural change of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people through time.There is consensus that no human or closely related species evolved independently in Australia.This is because there have been no species of primate found in Australia, either in the present or in the fossil record.However, Smith rejects both concepts of archaeological science because neither emphasize falsification or a search for causality.However, in almost all cases of archeometric research, scientists from the natural sciences assist in the scientific analysis of archeological artifacts.During this time Australia and New Guinea were joined as a single land mass called Sahul.The south-east Asian continent and islands were also joined as a single land mass called Sunda.This may suggest that the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population derive from an early African population which migrated along the south coast of Asia, at a much faster rate than other populations migrating across the continents of the Holocene.The first settlement of Australia most likely occurred during the last glacial maximum.There is controversy over where the first Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people originated.Both of the two main theories postulate that the first settlers were fully modern humans.