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Since that time, the fighting in Aleppo has intensified, which has led to damage to multiple important historical sites throughout the Ancient City. Debris is present across the area and blocks of structures have been reduced to rubble.Many of these are large and built with durable materials, such as stone, brick, and mud brick adobe, suggesting intense bombing.During the past two years, Aleppo has been at the frontline in the present conflict.
The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current status of each site.
Syria has six World Heritage sites: the Ancient City of Aleppo, the Ancient City of Bosra, the Ancient City of Damascus, the Ancient Site of Palmyra, the Ancient Cities of Northern Syria, and Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din.
A report, published by AAAS in August 2013 and titled Conflict in Aleppo, Syria: A Retrospective Analysis, documented the effect of the war on the city as of .
Considerable damage was seen within the old city, including damage to the Great Mosque of Aleppo and the ancient Suq al-Madina covered market.
Since 19 July 2012, reports indicate that government and opposition forces have continued to clash both in and around the city.
Accounts of the conflict in Aleppo describe a conflict characterized by heavy fighting, widespread shelling by tanks and artillery, and numerous civilian casualties. Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din Conclusion Acknowledgements References Cited Executive Summary In partnership with the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology’s Penn Cultural Heritage Center (Penn CHC) and the Smithsonian Institution, and in cooperation with the Syrian Heritage Task Force, the Geospatial Technologies and Human Rights Project of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) undertook an assessment of Syria’s World Heritage sites using high-resolution satellite imagery (Figure 1).The potential for harm extends to all six Syrian sites that have been inscribed on the World Heritage list.A number of reports summarizing damage to Syria’s cultural heritage have appeared since the onset of the conflict in Syria in 2011.To date, overviews have been published on World Heritage sites and the destruction of museums, historic structures, and archaeological sites.The imagery used was collected by satellites owned and operated by Digital Globe, and the relevant acquisition information is listed in tables in the following subsections. Ancient City of Aleppo As one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Aleppo has long been the urban, commercial, and cultural center of northwestern Syria.Aleppo’s role as a commercial hub and a trade center that began in the 2nd millennium BC and reached its peak during the 16th-18th centuries AD.Next to the Umayyad Mosque is a Byzantine cathedral that later became the al Halawyah Madrassa—a Koranic school.The Ancient City of Aleppo was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1986.In the center of the ancient city, the Aleppo citadel rises 50m above the surrounding area and dates to the 10th century BC or earlier, and stands on the remains of Hittite, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, and Ayyubid period buildings.The surrounding walled city dates to the same periods, with still standing structures and architectural remains.