However, at various stages throughout the sanctions, it was often said by U. officials that the sanctions would not be lifted until the Saddam Hussein regime had gone.
have contributed to a humanitarian disaster in Iraq, further exacerbated by military strikes, such as those in 1998.
Even the Secretary General of the UN, Koffi Annan had politely expressed his disappointment.
In addition, As UNICEF and other United Nations bodies and officials have reported, the sanctions (which the U. Up to half of these are said to have been be children, but the 500,000 number has been controversial based on the methods of data collection and estimation. In any case, the sanctions have been crticized for targeting Iraqi people and not Saddam Hussein’s regime. For sanctions to work, there needs to be a promise of relief to counterbalance the suffering; that is, a carrot as well as a stick.
Indeed, it was the failure of both the United States and the United Nations to explicitly spell out what was needed in order for sanctions to be lifted that led to Iraq suspending its cooperation with UN inspectors in December 1998.
However, the international community did not alter the scope of sanctions, which remained in force over the whole of Iraq.
This 'double embargo' imposed by the international community and by the Government of Iraq encouraged the development of a non-productive economy based on revenues derived from customs duties, and smuggling to Turkey, Iran, and government-controlled areas of Iraq.
This anomalous economic situation fuelled the conflict between rival political factions, resulting in four years of internal fighting from 1993-1997.
By 1995 this conflict resulted in the virtual collapse of the Kurdish Regional Administration established after the May 1992 elections in the northern Iraq.
The blockade/sanctions regime is by its nature inherently illegal under the Geneva Protocol, for three reasons.
First, it targets civilians in breach of Articles 48 and 51(2).