In 160 Judas Maccabee led a rebellion that allowed the Jews to reclaim Jerusalem, a victory that Jews still celebrate in the festival of Hanukkah.
Judah became an independent state in 141 The Temple was destroyed, and the majority of the Jews were dispersed throughout the world.
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Immigrants from various countries also bring their languages with them, and Spanish, Italian, African dialects, and especially Russian are often heard. The flag consists of a blue six-pointed star on a white background, with a horizontal blue stripe above and one below.
The star, called a Magen David, or Shield of David, is a symbol of the Jewish faith.The Israeli national anthem, Hatikva , is over one hundred years old.Its melody is of unknown origin, although some believe it comes from an Eastern European fold song.Each nationality is inextricable from its religious identity.The Palestinians are Arabs whose traditions are founded in Muslim culture; the Jews define their culture in large part around their religion as well.In 721 Israel was conquered by Assyria, and in 586 it was taken over by Babylonia.The city of Jerusalem was destroyed, and the Jews were exiled to Babylon.Its lyrics are explicitly Zionist, extolling the return of the Jews to their holy land.The song was banned from the airwaves during the British mandate, and it continues to be somewhat controversial today; there has been some debate as to whether its Zionist message is still valid. There is archaeological evidence of settlements in Israel dating from nine thousand to eleven thousand years ago.The Jordan River stretches 200 miles (322 kilometers) from Syria in the north, emptying into the Dead Sea. This includes an estimated 171,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 6,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 172,000 in East Jerusalem.The Dead Sea (technically a lake) is, at 1,312 feet (400 meters) below sea level, the lowest inland sea on earth. The population is roughly 80 percent Jewish; of the total population, 32.1 percent were born in Europe or America; 20.8 percent in Israel; 14.6 percent in Africa; and 12.6 percent in Asia. The modern Hebrew language was designed by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, a Lithuanian Jew who moved to Palestine in the 1880s.